The research aims to recognize the potential of adopting the model-based design methodology to the development process of an LPG fuelling system. Changing regulations often force the modern development of internal combustion engines (Euro 7, CO2 reduction measures, etc.). With the definitive ban on new registrations of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines in Europe (planned for 2035), there is still ongoing development of the adaptation of the fuelling system to LPG. There is still market potential in adapting new internal combustion engines, usually equipped with direct injection systems, to reduce customers’ cost of ownership of a vehicle. As the engineering process should be accelerated in the face of the variety of direct injection systems offered by OEMs, the model-based design methodology is proposed to make the development more effective. The article presents the SWOT analysis of this approach in the engineering process and the potential of the method in an LPG system development is concluded.
Ahmadian M, Nazari ZJ, Nakhaee N, Kostic Z. Model based design and SDR. 2005.
Beik Y, Dziewiątkowski M, Szpica D. Exhaust emissions of an engine fuelled by petrol and liquefied petroleum gas with control algorithm adjustment. SAE Int J Engines. 2020;13(5):739-759.
Benzaghta MA, Elwalda A, Mousa M, Erkan I, Rahman M. SWOT analysis applications: an integrative literature review. JGBI. 2021;6(1):55-73.
Bermas D. Software detailed design for model-based development – obligatory or superfluous? 2016.
Bielaczyc P, Woodburn J, Gandyk M, Szczotka A. Ethanol as an automotive fuel – a review. Combustion Engines. 2016;166(3):39-45.
Brand C, Anable J. “Disruption” and “continuity” in transport energy systems: the case of the ban on new conventional fossil fuel vehicles. European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE) Summer Study 2019 Proceedings. 2019.
Cipollone R, Villante C. A dynamical model for the design of LPG liquid-phase injection systems. ICE Technical Conference ASME 2000.
Deissenboeck F, Hummel B, Jürgens E, Schätz B, Wagner S, Girard J-F et al. Clone detection in automotive model-based development. Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Software engineering – ICSE ’08. ACM Press, New York 2008.
FCA develops AUTOSAR-compliant Engine Control System with model-based design. 2018.
Fuel types of new passenger cars in the EU – ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association. ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association. 2021.
How Engineering Teams Adopt Model-Based Design. 2021.
IAV Develops Mass-Production Gaseous-Fuel ECUs Using Model-Based Design. 2009.
Ibrahim M, Rjabtšikov V, Gilbert R. Overview of digital twin platforms for EV applications. Sensors. 2023;23(3):1414.
Krasner J. How product development organizations can achieve long-term cost savings using model-based systems engineering (MBSE). 2015.
Model-Based Design. 2019.
Namugenyi C, Nimmagadda SL, Reiners T. Design of a SWOT analysis model and its evaluation in diverse digital business ecosystem contexts. Procedia Computer Science. 2019;159:1145-54.
Nóvoa GPAS da. The adaptability of companies in the automotive sector to the ban on internal combustion vehicles in Europe from 2035. 2022. https://repositorio.iscte-iul.....
Ohata A, Butts KR. Improving model-based design for automotive control systems development. IFAC Proceedings. 2008;41(2):1062-5.
Pielecha I. Diagnostics of stratified charge combustion under the conditions of multiple gasoline direct injection. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;118(1):217-25.
Pulawski G, Szpica D. The modelling of the compression ignition engine powered with diesel fuel with LPG admixture. Mechanika. 2016;21(6):500-505.
Rai A, Kumar NS, Pai SP, Rao BS. Fuzzy logic based prediction of performance and emission parameters of a LPG-diesel dual fuel engine. Procedia Engineering. 2012;38:280-292.
Rządowy projekt ustawy skierowany do Sejmu (Government bill submitted to the Sejm).
Szpica D. The influence of selected adjustment parameters on the operation of LPG vapor phase pulse injectors. J Nat Gas Sci Eng. 2016;34:1127-1136.
Samaras ZC, Kontses A, Dimaratos A, Kontses D, Balazs A, Hausberger S et al. A European regulatory perspective towards a Euro 7 proposal. SAE Technical Paper. 2022-37-0032. 2022.
Stelmasiak Z, Larisch J, Pietras D. Issues related to naturally aspirated and supercharged CI engines fueled with diesel oil and CNG gas. Combustion Engines. 2017;169(2):24-31.
Stelmasiak Z, Semikow J. The possibilities of improvement of spark ignition engine efficiency through dual fueling of methanol and gasoline. Combustion Engines. 2010;142(3):59-67.
Venkatesh B, Babu JC, Mathivanan SK, Jayagopal P, Prasanna S, Uddin MS. Influences of aqueous nanofluid emulsion on diesel engine performance, combustion, and emission: IoT (Emission Monitoring System). Adv Mater Sci Eng. 2022;2022:1-9.
VSI-DI system. 2013.