Testing of real driving emissions (RDE) offers the opportunity to collect the data about the emissions in special driving, or non-driving situations. These situations are: cold start, warm-up of the engine, stop & go and idling. In the present work, the definitions of the special driving situations were proposed, the emissions of 7 passenger cars (gasoline & Diesel) were extracted from the present RDE data and some special driving situations, particularly the stop & go operation with varying share of idling were reproduced on chassis dynamometer. As expected, the emissions of CO, NOx and PN are in the cold start and in the first part of the warm-up phase (c.a. 25s) considerably higher than in the rest of the investigated urban phase. The singular emitting situations like “stop & go” or idling occur frequently in the warm-up phase, i.e. in the city operation when the engine and the exhaust system are still not warm enough.
European Environment Agency. EMEP/EEA Air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. EEA Report. 2016, 21. (accessed on 29 March 2019).
FRANCO, V., KOUSOULIDOU, M., MUNTEAN, M. et al. Road vehicle emission factors development: a review. Atmosphere Environment. 2013, 70, 84-97.
NTZIACHRISTOS, L., GKATZOFLIAS, D., KOURIDIS, C. et al. COPERT: A European road transport emission inventory model. In: Athanasiadis, I.N., Rizzoli, A.E., Mitkas, P.A., Gómez J.M. (eds) Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
BORGE, R., LUMBRERAS, J., PEREZ, J. et al. Emission inventories and modeling requirements for the development of air quality plans. Application to Madrid (Spain). Science of the Total Environment. 2014, 466-467, 809-819.
VALVERDE, V., MORA, B.A., CLAIROTTE, M. et al. Emission factors derived from 13 Euro 6b light-duty vehicles based on laboratory and on-road measurements. Atmosphere. 2019, 10, 243.
GIECHASKIEL, B., GIORIA, R., CARRIERO, M. et al. Emission factors of a Euro VI heavy-duty diesel refuse collection vehicle. Sustainability. 2019, 11, 1067.
ANDERSSON, J., MAY, J., FAVRE, C. et al. On-road and chassis dynamometer evaluations of emissions from two Euro 6 diesel vehicles. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2014, 7(3), 919-934.
BIELACZYC, P., WOODBURN, J., SZCZOTKA, A. Exhaust emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants measured over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC chassis dynamometer driving cycles. SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1008. 2016.
MAY, J., BOSTEELS, D., FAVRE, C. An assessment of emissions from light-duty vehicles using PEMS and chassis dynamometer testing. SAE International Journal of Engines. 2014, 7(3), 1326-1335.
CLAIROTTE, M., VALVERDE, V., BONNEL, P. et al. Joint Research Centre 2018, Light-duty vehicles emissions testing. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg, 2018.
CZERWINSKI, J., ZIMMERLI, Y., COMTE, P. et al. Experiences and results with different PEMS. TAP Paper. International Transport and Air Pollution Conference, May 24th-26th, 2016, Lyon.
CZERWINSKI, J., ZIMMERLI, Y., COMTE, P. et al. Potentials of the portable emission measuring systems (PN PEMS) to control real driving emissions (RDE). 38. Inter-national Vienna Motor Symposium, 27-28 April 2017, VDI Fortschritt-Bericht. 2017, 12(802), Vol. 2.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., ZIMMERLI, Y. et al. Research of emissions with gas PEMS and PN PEMS. TAP Paper, International Transport and Air Pollution Conference, 15th-16th November 2017, EMPA, Zürich.
GIECHASKIEL, B., ROCCOBONO, F., BONNEL, P. Feasibility study on the extension of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure to particle number (PN). European Commission. Joint Research Centre. 2016.
SUAREZ-BERTOA, R., VALVERDE, V., CLAIROTTE, M. et al. On-road emissions of passenger cars beyond the boundary conditions of the real-driving emissions test. Environmental Research. 2019, 176, 108572.
O’DRISCOLL, R., STETTLER, M.E.J., MOLDEN, N. et al. Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars. Science of the Total Environment. 2018, 621, 282-290.
LUJÁN, J.M., BERMÚDEZ, V., DOLZ, V. et al. An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Atmospheric Environment. 2018, 174, 112-121.
KO, J., MYUNG, C.L., PARK, S. Impacts of ambient temperature, DPF regeneration, and traffic congestion on NOX emissions from a Euro 6-compliant diesel vehicle equipped with an LNT under real-world driving conditions. Atmospheric Environment. 2019, 200, 1-14.
KAWAI, T., TSUNOOKA, T., CHIBA, F. et al. Effect of high concentration ethanol on SI engine cold startabillity and emissions. 16. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. 2007, 2, 1075.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., ENGELMANN, D. et al. Non-legislated emissions and PN of two passenger cars with gasoline-butanol blends. Combustion Engines. 2018, 172(1), 64-72.
STEPIEN, Z., CZERWINSKI, J. Cold start with ethanol-blend fuels and influences on non-legislated emissions of a GDI flex fuel vehicle. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017, 26(5), 2223-2229.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., GÜDEL, M. Non-legislated emissions of a GDI flex fuel passenger car at cold start with ethanol and butanol blend fuels. TAE. 11th International Colloquium Fuels Conventional and Future Energy for Automobiles. 2017, 199-207.
BIELACZYC, P., WOODBURN, J., SZCZOTKA, A. An investigation into cold start emissions from compression ignition engines using EU legislative emissions test procedures. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2013, 6(2), 466-477.
BIELACZYC, P., SZCZOTKA, A., WOODBURN, J. The effect of a low ambient temperature on the cold-start emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering. 2011, 225(9), 1253-1264.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., HEEB, N. et al. Nanoparticle emissions of DI gasoline cars with/without GPF. SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1004, 2017.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., ENGELMANN, D. et al. PN-emissions of gasoline cars MPI and potentials of GPF. SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0363. 2018.