Biofuels represent one of the alternatives to obtain the CO2-neutral propulsion of IC-engines. Butanol, which can be produced from biomass, is considered and was investigated in the last years due to the very advantageous characteristics of this alternative fuel. Butanol can be easily and irreversibly blended both with light (gasoline) and heavier (Diesel) fuels. Comparing with ethanol it has the advantages of: higher calorific value, lower hygroscopicity and lower corrosivity. It can replace the aviation fuels. This paper presents the emission results obtained on two Diesel passenger cars with different technology (Euro2 and Euro6c) and with addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel, as a part of the research project DiBut (Diesel and Butanol). Interesting results are given about some non-legislated (non-regulated) components, Acetaldehyde (MeCHO) and Formaldehyde (HCHO) and about the PN-emissions with/without DPF.
GIAKOUMIS, E.G., RAKOPOULOS, C.D., DIMARATOS, A.M. et al. Exhaust emissions with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013, 17, 170-190.
RARBACH, M., SÖLTL, Y. Cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues. MTZ, 2013, 4(74), 4-8.
KAACK, M., WEISKIRCH, CH., EILTS, P. Alcoholic biofuels as an admixture component for conventional and alternative diesel combustion processes. MTZ. 2009, 7-8(70), 58-65.
BRASSAT, A., THEWES, M., MÜTHER M. ET AL. Massgeschneiderte Kraftstoffe aus Biomasse für Ottomotoren. MTZ. 2011, 12(72), 988-995.
SIWALE, L., KRISTOF, L., ADAM, T. et al. n-butanol-diesel (D2) blend fired in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Performance and Combustion Characteristic. 2018, March.
LAPUERTA, M., HERNÁNDEZ, J.J., RODRIGUEZ-FERNÁNDEZ, J. et al. Emission benefits from the use of n-butanol blends in a Euro 6 diesel engine. International Journal of Engine Research. 2018, 19(10).
SHUKLA, M.K., THARKE, G.D., SAXENA, R.C. et al. Butanol/diesel blends as a CI engine fuel: physicochemical and engine performance characteristics evaluation. TAE Technische Akademie Esslingen. 9th International Colloquium “Fuels”. 2013, January 15-17.
HAN, X., YANG, Z., WANG, M. et al. Clean combustion of n-butanol as a next generation biofuel for diesel engines. Applied Energy. 2017, 198, 347-359.
SOLOIU, V., DUGGAN, M., HARP, S. et al. PFI (port fuel injection) of n-butanol and direct injection of biodiesel to attain LTC (low-temperature combustion) for low-emissions idling in a compression engine. Elsevier Energy. 2013, 52, 143-154.
WALLNER, T., ICKES, A., LAWYER, K. et al. Higher alcohols in multi-component blends with gasoline – experimental and analytical assessment. 14. Tagung “Der Arbeitsprozess des Verbrennungsmotors”, TU Graz. 2013, September.
TORNATORE C., MARCHITTO L., VALENTINO G. et al. Optical diagnostics of the combustion process in a PFI SI boosted engine fueled with butanol-gasoline blend. Energy. 2012, 45(1), 277-287.
MEROLA, S., TORNATORE, C., MARCHITTO, L. et al. Experimental investigations of butanol-gasoline blends effects on the combustion process in a SI engine. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 2012, 11(3).
MARCHITTO, L., MAZZEI, A., MEROLA, S.S. et al. Opti-cal investigations of combustion process in SI and CI engines fuelled with butanol blends. TAE Technische Akademie Ess-lingen. 9th International Colloquium “Fuels”. 2013, January 15-17.
IRIMESCU, A., TORNATORE, C., MEROLA, S.S. et al. Integrated diagnostics for combustion investigation in a DISI engine fueled with butanol and gasoline at different load set-tings. TAE Technische Akademie Esslingen. 10th International Colloquium „Fuels“, Stuttgart/Ostfildern. 2015, January 20-22.
GU, X., HUANG, Z., CAI, J. et al. Emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fuelled with gasoline-n-butanol blends in combination with EGR. Fuel. 2012, 93, 611-617.
LIU, H., WANG, X., ZHANG, D. et al. Investigation on blending effects of gasoline fuel with n-butanol, DMF, and ethanol on the fuel consumption and harmful emissions in a GDI vehicle. Energies. 2019, 12(10), 1845.
VOJTISEK-LOM, M., PECHOUT, M., MAZAC, M. Real-word on-road exhaust emissions from an ordinary gasoline car operated on E85 and on butanol-gasoline blend. SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0102. 2013.
US DOE CO-OPTIMA Publications Library:
ENGELMANN, D., CZERWINSKI, J., NAUROY, H. et al. Use of butanol blend fuels on diesel engines – effects on combustion and emissions. SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0333. 2020.
STEPIEN, Z., CZERWINSKI, J., URZEDOWSKA, W. et al. Research on emissions and engine lube oil deterioration of diesel engines with biofuels (RME). SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1302. 2011.
CZERWINSKI, J., COMTE, P., STEPIEN, Z. et al. Effects of ethanol blend fuels E10 & E85 on the non-legislated emissions of a flex fuel passenger car. SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0977. 2016.
HADLER, J., LENSCH-FRANZEN, CH., GOHL, M. et al. Concept for analysing and optimising oil emission. MTZ worldwide. 2014, 1(75), 24-29.
HADLER, J., LENSCH-FRANZEN, CH., GOHL, M. et al. Emission reduction a solution of lubricant composition, cali-bration and mechanical development. MTZ worldwide. 2015, 9(76), 30-33.
CZERWINSKI, J., ZIMMERLI, Y., NEUBERT, T. et al. Injection, combustion and (nano) particle emissions of a modern HD-diesel engine with GTL, RME & ROR. SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2015. 2007.