Particle number measurements in the European legislation and future JRC activities
 
More details
Hide details
1
Scientific Laboratory Manager – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
2
Scientific/Technical Project Officer – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport, and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
3
Scientific/Technical Project Officer – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
4
Scientific/Technical Project Officer – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport, and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
5
Scientific/Technical Project Officer – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
6
Deputy Head of Unit – JRC, Directorate C – Energy, Transport and Climate, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Italy.
Publication date: 2018-07-01
 
Combustion Engines 2018,174(3), 3–16
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The solid particle number method was introduced in the European Union (EU) light-duty legislation for diesel vehicles to ensure the installation of the best-available technology for particles (i.e., wall-flow diesel particulate filters) without the uncertainties of the volatile nucleation mode and without the need of large investment for purchasing the equipment. Later it was extended to gasoline vehicles with direct injection engines, heavy-duty engines (both compression ignition and positive ignitions) and non-road mobile machinery engines. Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing on the road with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for particle number (and NOx) during type approval and in-service conformity testing was recently (in 2017) introduced for light-duty vehicles, and is under discussion for heavy-duty vehicles in-service conformity testing. This paper will summarize the existing legislation regarding solid particle number and discuss the on-going activities at EU level. The main focus at the moment is on improving the calibration procedures, and extending the lower detection size below 23 nm with inter-laboratory exercises. In parallel, discussions are on-going to introduce testing at low ambient temperature, regeneration emissions in the light-duty regulation, a particle limit for other technologies such as gasoline port-fuel injection vehicles, and the feasibility of particle measurements to L-category vehicles (mopeds, motorcycles, tricycles and minicars). A short overview of periodical technical inspection investigations and the situation regarding non-exhaust traffic related sources with special focus on brakes and tyres will be described.
 
REFERENCES (68)
1.
World Health Organization. Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution–REVIHAAP Project; WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013.
 
2.
KUMAR, P., MORAWSKA, L., BIRMILI, W. et al. Ultrafine particles in cities. Environment International. 2014, 66, 1-10.
 
3.
Report of the GRPE Particle Measurement Programme (PMP): Government Sponsored Work Programmes, Available at: https://www.unece.org/fileadmi....
 
4.
GIECHASKIEL, B., MAMAKOS, A., ANDERSSON, J. et al. Measurement of automotive nonvolatile particle number emissions within the European legislative framework: a review. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2012, 46, 719-749.
 
5.
PMP-27-02 Draft Proposal for UNECE GRPE PMP ToR_24_04_2013. (Final at PMP 41). https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
6.
BISCHOF, O. Recent developments in the measurement of low particulate emissions from mobile sources: a review of particle number legislations. Emission Control Science and Technology. 2015, 1, 203-2212.
 
7.
GIECHASKIEL, B., MARICQ, M., NTZIACHRISTOS, L. et al. Review of motor vehicle particulate emissions sampling and measurement: from smoke and filter mass to particle number. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2014, 67, 48-86.
 
8.
OTSUKI, Y., NAKAMURA, H., ARAI, M., XU, M. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations. Measurement Science and Technology. 2015, 26, 092002.
 
9.
GIECHASKIEL, B., CLAIROTTE, M., VALVERDE-MORALES, V. et al. Framework for the assessment of PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) uncertainty. Environmental Research. 2018, 166, 251-260.
 
10.
MAMAKOS, A., BONNEL P., PERUJO A., CARRIERO, M. Assessment of portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for heavy-duty diesel engines with respect to particulate matter. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2013, 57, 54-70.
 
11.
GIECHASKIEL, B., RICCOBONO, F., MENDOZA, P., GRIGORATOS, T. Particle Number (PN) – Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS): Heavy Duty Vehicles Evaluation Phase at the Joint Research Centre (JRC). JRC scientific report EUR 28256 EN, 2016.
 
12.
GIECHASKIEL, B., SCHWELBERGER, M., DELACROIX, C. et al. Experimental assessment of solid particle number Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for heavy-duty vehicles applications. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2018, 123, 161-170.
 
13.
ZARDINI, A., CLAIROTTE, M., LANAPPE, G. et al. Preparatory work for the environmental effect study on the Euro 5 step of L-category vehicles. European Commission − Joint Research Centre Science for Policy Report JRC100557; EUR 27788 EN, 2016.
 
14.
CLAIROTTE, M., ZARDINI, A., MARTINI, G. Phase 1 of the environmental effect study on the Euro 5 step of L category vehicles – Stocktaking and data mining, European Commission JRC Scientific and Technical Research Reports, EUR 27994 EN, 2016.
 
15.
GIECHASKIEL, B., ZARDINI, A., MARTINI, G. Particle emission measurements from L-category vehicles. SAE International Journal of Engines. 2015, 8(5), 2322-2337.
 
16.
TNO Report for European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs. Effect study of the environmental step Euro 5 for L-category vehicles. ISBN number: 978-92-79-70203-7 doi:10.2873/397876. TNO 2017 R10565.
 
17.
MAMAKOS, A. Particle measurement programme volatile particle remover calibration round robin. Report EUR 25512 EN, 2012.
 
18.
PMP 36-03 Calibration questionnaire with answers. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
19.
GIECHASKIEL, B., WANG, X., HORN, H. et al. Calibration of condensation particle counters for legislated vehicle number emission measurements. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2009, 43, 1164-1173.
 
20.
TERRES, A., EBERT, V., NOWAK, A. et al. Particle measurement project. inter-laboratory correlation exercise with condensation particle counters. EU report 29277, 2018.
 
21.
ANDERSSON, J., GIECHASKIEL, B., MUNOZ-BUENO, R., DILARA, P. Particle measurement programme (PMP) light-duty interlaboratory correlation exercise (ILCE_LD). EU Report No. EUR 22775 EN, 2007.
 
22.
MAMAKOS, A., MARTINI, G., MANFREDI, U. Assessment of the legislated particle number measurement procedure for a Euro 5 and Euro 6 compliant diesel passenger cars under regulated and unregulated conditions. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2013, 55, 31-47.
 
23.
PMP-30-07 PN & regeneration. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
24.
YAMADA, H., FUNATO, K., SAKURAI, H. Application of the PMP methodology to the measurement of sub-23 nm solid particles: calibration procedures, experimental uncertainties, and data correction methods. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2015, 88, 58-71.
 
25.
PMP-37-03 _JRC exhaust particles work items status. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
26.
PMP-30-03 Regeneration topics. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
27.
GIECHASKIEL, B., MARTINI, G. Engine exhaust solid sub-23 nm particles: II. feasibility study for particle number measurement systems. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2014, 7, 935-949.
 
28.
GRPE-PMP-41-02 JRC_PMP_20161012_v2. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
29.
OTSUKI, Y., TAKEDA, K., HARUTA, K., MORI, N. A solid particle number measurement system including nanoparticles smaller than 23 nanometers. SAE Technical Paper. 2014-01-1604, 2014.
 
30.
GIECHASKIEL, B., VANHANEN, J., VÄKEVÄ, M., MARTINI, G. Investigation of vehicle exhaust sub-23 nm particle emissions. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2017, 51, 626-641.
 
31.
PMP-47-09 Light Duty-exhaust-sub23_RR_TL_JRC. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
32.
GIECHASKIEL, B., MANFREDI, U., MARTINI, G. Engine exhaust solid sub-23 nm particles: I. literature survey. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2014, 7, 950-964.
 
33.
GIECHASKIEL, B. Solid particle number emission factors of Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles on the road and in the laboratory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018, 15, 304.
 
34.
GIECHASKIEL, B., RICCOBONO, F., VLACHOS, T. et al. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2015, 3.
 
35.
MAMAKOS, A., MARTINI, G., MAROTTA, A., MANFREDI, U. Assessment of different technical options in reducing particle emissions from gasoline direct injection vehicles. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2013, 63, 115-125.
 
36.
DEMUYNCK, J., FAVRE, C., BOSTEELS, D. et al. Realworld emissions measurements of a gasoline direct injection vehicle without and with a gasoline particulate filter. SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0985, 2017.
 
37.
SUAREZ-BERTOA, R., ASTORGA, C. Impact of cold temperature on Euro 6 passenger car emissions. Environmental Pollution. 2018, 234, 318-329.
 
38.
PMP-37-02 Raw Exhaust PN Counting – Research Areas. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
39.
PMP-47-07 Raw Exhaust via Fixed Dilution. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
40.
GIECHASKIEL, B., CARRIERO, M., MARTINI, G. et al. Comparison of particle number measurements from the full dilution tunnel, the tailpipe and two partial flow systems. SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1299, 2010.
 
41.
ANDERSSON, J., MAMAKOS, T., GIECHASKIEL, B. et al. Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) Heavy-Duty Inter-Laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE HD) Final Report EUR 24561 EN, 2010.
 
42.
BECK, H. Particle number measurement according to PMP protocol and direct measurement. 20th ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Particles. 13-16 June 2016, Zurich, Switzerland.
 
43.
KHAN, Y., SHARMA, S., LIEW, C. et al. Comparison of full flow dilution, partial flow dilution, and raw exhaust particle number measurements. Emission Control Science and Technology. 2018. DOI:10.1007/s40825-018-0086-6.
 
44.
PMP-35-08 Direct PN Measurement 4-3-2015. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
45.
GIECHASKIEL, B., RICCOBONO, F., BONNEL, P. Feasibility study on the extension of the real driving emissions (RDE) procedure to particle number (PN): chassis dynamometer evaluation of portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) to measure particle number (PN) concentration: Phase II. JRC report, Ispra, Italy. ISBN 978-92-79-51003-8, 2015.
 
46.
GIECHASKIEL, B., RICCOBONO, F., BONNEL, P. Feasibility study on the extension of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure to Particle Number (PN): Experimental evaluation of portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) with diffusion chargers (DCs) to measure particle number (PN) concentration; JRC report 26997 EN, 2014.
 
47.
RICCOBONO, F., GIECHASKIEL, B., WEISS, M., BONNEL, P. How to extend the real drive emission test procedure to particle number. Presentation at the 18th ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles. 25th June 2014, Zurich, Switzerland.
 
48.
RICCOBONO, F., GIECHASKIEL, B., MENDOZA, P. Particle number PEMS inter-laboratory comparison exercise: performance of PN-PEMS for the extension of the RDE test procedure to PN. EU report 28136 EN, 2016.
 
49.
SCHWELBERGER, M., GIECHASKIEL, B. Evaluation of portable number emission systems for heavy-duty applications under steady state and transient vehicle operation conditions on a chassis dynamometer. SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0348, 2018.
 
50.
GIECHASKIEL, B. PN-PEMS theoretical uncertainty evaluation. Presentation to the PEMS expert group, 24 May 2018, Brussels, Belgium.
 
55.
KADIJK, G., MAYER, A. White paper. NPTI–the New Periodic Technical Inspection emission test procedure for vehicles with emission control systems. 20 June 2017.
 
56.
KADIJK, G., ELSTGEEST, M., LIGTERINK, N., van der MARK, P. Investigation into a Periodic Technical Inspection (PTI) test method to check for presence and proper functioning of diesel particulate filters in light-duty diesel vehicles – part 2. TNO 2017 R10530, 2017.
 
57.
SUAREZ-BERTOA, R., LAHDE, T., GIECHASKIEL, B. Verification of NPTI instruments for diesel and petrol vehicles – first results. ETH conference, June 21st 2018, Zurich, Switzerland.
 
58.
 
59.
Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles. Brussels, 27.1.2016, COM(2016) 31 final.
 
60.
European Commission, COMMISSION NOTICE of 26.1.2017 – Guidance on the evaluation of Auxiliary Emission Strategies and the presence of Defeat Devices with regard to the application of Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6), 2017, 1-18.
 
61.
GRIGORATOS, T. Chapter 4 – Regulation on brake/tire composition. Non-exhaust emissions: an urban air quality problem for public health. impact and mitigation measures 2018 Elsevier Inc.
 
62.
GRIGORATOS, T., MARTINI, G. Brake wear particle emissions: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015, 22, 2491-2504.
 
63.
PMP-39-04 NEPE – Summary Results of WI-1. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
64.
PMP-41-12 Comparison WLTP and Industrial Cycles. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
65.
PMP-45-03 PMP Task Force ƖƖ – brake sampling & measurement. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
66.
PMP-45-13 AVL_TUI_particle emissions From_Different_Types_Of_Break_Pads. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
67.
PMP-47-16 AVL_TUI_PM_Results. https://wiki.unece.org/display....
 
68.
GRIGORATOS, T., GUSTAFSSON, M., ERIKSSON, O., MARTINI, G. Experimental investigation of tread wear and particle emission from tyres with different treadwear marking. Atmospheric Environment. 2018, 182, 200-212.
 
 
CITATIONS (16):
1.
Measurement of Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines: A Comparison of Processing Methods
Sebastian Pfau, Ephraim Haffner-Staton, Rocca La
SAE Technical Paper Series
 
2.
A miniature Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for real-driving monitoring of motorcycles
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Alessandro Zardini, Martin Pechout, Lubos Dittrich, Fausto Forni, François Montigny, Massimo Carriero, Barouch Giechaskiel, Giorgio Martini
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
 
3.
Traffic-Related Air Pollution
Karl Ropkins, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Yoann Bernard
 
4.
Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Vehicles Using Systems with Evaporation Tube or Catalytic Stripper and 23 nm or 10 nm Counters
Barouch Giechaskiel, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka, Piotr Bielaczyc
SAE Technical Paper Series
 
5.
Particle number measurements within periodic technical inspections: A first quantitative assessment of the influence of size distributions and the fleet emission reduction
Markus Bainschab, Mario Schriefl, Alexander Bergmann
Atmospheric Environment: X
 
6.
Impact of Mileage on Particle Number Emission Factors for EURO5 and EURO6 Diesel Passenger Cars
François Boveroux, Séverine Cassiers, Meyer De, Pascal Buekenhoudt, Benjamin Bergmans, François Idczak, Hervé Jeanmart, Sebastian Verhelst, Francesco Contino
Atmospheric Environment
 
7.
World-wide trends in powertrain system development in light of emissions legislation, fuels, lubricants, and test methods
Piotr BIELACZYC, Joseph WOODBURN, Ameya JOSHI
Combustion Engines
 
8.
Ultrafine particles: unique physicochemical properties relevant to health and disease
Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Min Ryu, Christopher Carlsten
Experimental & Molecular Medicine
 
9.
Experimental characterization of ultrafine particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine equipped with a standard DPF
B. Rossomando, E. Meloni, Falco De, M. Sirignano, I. Arsie, V. Palma
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute
 
10.
Decennial time trends and diurnal patterns of particle number concentrations in a central European city between 2008 and 2018
Santtu Mikkonen, Zoltán Németh, Veronika Varga, Tamás Weidinger, Ville Leinonen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Imre Salma
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
 
11.
Impact of pre-charged particles on steady state and pulsed modes of unipolar diffusion chargers
M. Knoll, M. Schriefl, R. Nishida, A. Bergmann
Aerosol Science and Technology
 
12.
Simulation of deep-bed filtration of a gasoline particulate filter with inhomogeneous wall structure under different particle size distributions
Zhijun Li, Boxi Shen, Yanke Zhang, Xiangjin Kong, Shilong Li
International Journal of Engine Research
 
13.
The Particle Number Counter as a “Black Box” - A Novel Approach to a Universal Particle Number Calibration Standard for Automotive Exhaust
Alexander Terres, Heinz Bacher, Volker Ebert
SAE Technical Paper Series
 
14.
Transportation Air Pollutants
Anna Krajinska
 
15.
Road traffic nanoparticle characteristics: Sustainable environment and mobility
Ines Belkacem, Ali Helali, Salah Khardi, Amani Chrouda, Khalifa Slimi
Geoscience Frontiers
 
16.
Particle Number Emissions of Gasoline, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fueled Vehicles at Different Ambient Temperatures
Tero Lähde, Barouch Giechaskiel
Atmosphere
 
eISSN:2658-1442
ISSN:2300-9896