Particle number measurements in the European legislation and future JRC activities
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Publication date: 2018-07-01
Combustion Engines 2018,174(3), 3–16
The solid particle number method was introduced in the European Union (EU) light-duty legislation for diesel vehicles to ensure the installation of the best-available technology for particles (i.e., wall-flow diesel particulate filters) without the uncertainties of the volatile nucleation mode and without the need of large investment for purchasing the equipment. Later it was extended to gasoline vehicles with direct injection engines, heavy-duty engines (both compression ignition and positive ignitions) and non-road mobile machinery engines. Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing on the road with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for particle number (and NOx) during type approval and in-service conformity testing was recently (in 2017) introduced for light-duty vehicles, and is under discussion for heavy-duty vehicles in-service conformity testing. This paper will summarize the existing legislation regarding solid particle number and discuss the on-going activities at EU level. The main focus at the moment is on improving the calibration procedures, and extending the lower detection size below 23 nm with inter-laboratory exercises. In parallel, discussions are on-going to introduce testing at low ambient temperature, regeneration emissions in the light-duty regulation, a particle limit for other technologies such as gasoline port-fuel injection vehicles, and the feasibility of particle measurements to L-category vehicles (mopeds, motorcycles, tricycles and minicars). A short overview of periodical technical inspection investigations and the situation regarding non-exhaust traffic related sources with special focus on brakes and tyres will be described.