History and future of turbine aircraft engines
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Publication date: 2006-11-01
Combustion Engines 2006,127(4), 3-18
This paper discusses stages of development of air propulsion from piston engines up to three-rotor turbine ones. Limitations in speed and altitude of flight, caused by traditional system of a piston engine and an airscrew, became an impulse to conduct research on jet propulsion. Accomplishments of the designers of the first jet-propelled engines: F. Whitle and H. von Ohain are a reflection of rivalry in this field. In the second half of the 20th centur y turbine propulsion (turbojet, turboprop and helicopter engines) dominated air force and civil aviation. In 1960 the age of turbofans began, owing to better operating properties and electronic and digital systems of automatic regulation. Further development of turbine engines is connected with application of qualitatively new materials (particularly composites), optimization of the shape of compressor and turbine blades and technologies of their production. The paper discusses design changes decreasing the destructive effects of foreign matter suction and indicates the possibility of increasing the maneuverability of airplanes by thrust vectoring. Finally, development prospects of turbine propulsion are analyzed.
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