Hydrocarbon species in SI and HCCI engine using winter grade commercial gasoline
Usama ELGHAWI 1  
,  
Ahmed MAYOUF 2
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Libyan Academy of Graduate Studies
2
International Study group, Kingston University, United Kingdom
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Publication date: 2020-03-30
Submission date: 2019-10-02
Final revision date: 2019-12-21
Acceptance date: 2020-01-22
 
Combustion Engines 2020;180(1):17–24
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the C5-C11 hydrocarbon species generated in Spark Ignition – Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (SI/HCCI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine at range of operating conditions. The presented results and data were obtained from the combustion of winter grade commercial gasoline containing 2% w/w ethanol (C2H5OH) for the engine operated in steady-state, fully warmed-up condition. The hydrocarbon analysis in exhaust gases was executed on a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) apparatus directly connected to the engine exhaust via heated line. The highest concentration of the total hydrocarbon emissions was obtained under low load HCCI engine operation at stoichiometric fuel-air ratio. The major hydrocarbon compounds detected in the collected samples were benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and naphthalene. Benzene originates from the incomplete combustion of toluene and other alkylbenzenes which are of considerable environmental interest. During the SI engine operation, increase of the engine speed and load resulted in the increase of benzene and the total olefinic species with simultaneous decrease in isopentane and isooctane. The same trends are seen with the engine operating under HCCI mode, but since the combustion temperature is always lower than SI mode under the same engine conditions, the oxidation of fuel paraffin in the former case was less. As a result, the total olefins and benzene levels in HCCI mode were lower than the corresponding amount observed in SI mode. Aromatic compounds (e.g., toluene), except for benzene, were produced at lower levels in the exhaust when the engine speed and load for both modes were increased.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
One of the authors (Elghawi) would like to acknowledge the Libyan Government for the provision of the scholarships and Professor Wyszynski and his group for accepting him in their laboratory in the department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, the UK. Jaguar is acknowledged for supporting the work with the research engine
 
REFERENCES (33)
1.
JOHNSON, E.S., LANGARD, S., LIN, Y. A critique of Benzene exposure in general population. Science of the Total Environment. 2007, 374,183.
 
2.
US Environmental Protection Agency. Estimating cancer risk from outdoor concentrations of hazardous air pollutants in 1990. EPA, Environmental Research Section. 2000, 82, 194-206.
 
3.
KOSTRZEWSKI, P., PIOLROWSKI, J. Toluene determination in capillary blood as a biological indicator of exposure to low level of toluene. Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine. Medicine Environmental Health. 1991, 4, 249-259.
 
4.
HAZRATI, S., ROSTAMI, R., FAZLZADEH, M. et al. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene concentrations in atmospheric ambient air of gasoline and CNG refueling stations. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2016, 9, 403-409.
 
5.
ANDERSEN, I., LUNDQVIST, G.R, MOLHAVE, L. et al. Human response to controlled levels of toluene in six-hour exposures. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 1983, 9, 405-418.
 
6.
MAHAVAR et al. Toluene Poisoning Presenting as Bilateral Basal Ganglia Haemorrhage. Journal of The Association of Physicians of India. 2018, 66, 2018.
 
7.
ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Toluene (Update). U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.2000, 357 P, Atlanta.
 
8.
WALLINGTON, T.J., KAISER, W.E., FARRELL V. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective. Chemical Society Reviews. 2006, 35, 335.
 
9.
EPPING, K., ACEVES, S., BECHTOLD, R. et al. The potential of HCCI combustion for high efficiency and low emissions, SAE Technical Paper. 2002-01-1923, 2002.
 
10.
WALKER, J., O’HARA, C. Analysis of automobile exhaust gases by mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry. 1955, 27(5), 825-828.
 
11.
TSURUSHIMA, T., SHIMAZAKI, N., ASAUMI, Y. Gas sampling analysis of combustion processes in an HCCI Engine. International Journal of Engine Research. 2000, 1(4), 337.
 
12.
KAISER, E.W., MARICQ, M.M., XU, N. et al. Detailed HC species and particulate emissions from an HCCI engine as a function of air-fuel ratio. SAE Technical Paper. 2005-01-3749, 2005.
 
13.
LI, H., NEIL, S., CHIPPIOR, W. An experimental investigation on the emission characteristics of HCCI engine operation using n-heptane. SAE Technical Paper. 2007-01-1854, 2007.
 
14.
DEC, J.E., DAVISSON, M.L., LEIF, R.N. et al. Detailed HCCI exhaust speciation and the sources of HC and OHC emissions, SAE Technical Paper. 2008-01-0053, 2008.
 
15.
SHIBATA, G., KAWAGUCHI, R., YOSHIDA, S. et al. Molecular structure of hydrocarbon and auto-ignition characteristics of HCCI engines. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2014, 7, 3.
 
16.
HUNICZ, J., MEDINA, A. Experimental study on detailed emissions speciation of an HCCI engine equipped with a three-way catalytic converter. Energy. 2016, 117, 388-397.
 
17.
YANG, R., HARIHARAN, D., ZILG, S. et al. Efficiency and emissions characteristics of an HCCI engine fuelled by primary reference fuels. SAE Technical Paper. 2018-01-1255, 2018. https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-0....
 
18.
ELGHAWI, U.M., MAYOUF, A., TSOLAKIS, A. et al. Vapour-phase and particulate-bound PAHs profile generated by an (SI/HCCI) engine from a winter grade commercial gasoline fuel. Fuel. 2010, 89, 2019-2025.
 
19.
ELGHAWI, U.M., MAYOUF, A. Carbonyl emissions generated by an (SI/HCCI) engine from a winter grade commercial gasoline fuel. Fuel. 2014, 116, 109.
 
20.
OJEC Official Journal of the European Communities, L44, (16-02-2000).
 
21.
KAISER, E.W., SIEGL, W.O., HENIG, Y.I. et al. Effect of fuel structure on emission from a spark-ignited engine. Environmental Science & Technology. 1991, 25(12), 2005-2012.
 
22.
VILLINGER, J., FEDERER, W., PRAUN, S. Comparative study of butadiene and B, T, X tailpipe emissions for gasoline of different octane levels. SAE Technical Paper. 2001-01-1643, 2001.
 
23.
HECK, R.M., FARRAUTO, R.J. Automobile exhaust catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General. 2011, 221, 443.
 
24.
GANDHI, H.S., GRAHAM, G.W., MCCABE, R.W. Automotive exhaust catalysis. Journal of Catalysis. 2003, 216, 433.
 
25.
KASPAR, J., FORNASIERO, P., HICKEY, N. Automotive catalytic converters: current status and some perspectives. Catalysis Today. 2003, 77, 419.
 
26.
GARIN, F. Environmental catalysis. Catalysis Today. 2004, 89, 255.
 
27.
SCHUETZLE, D., SIEGL, W.O., JENSEN, T.E. et al. The relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle hydrocarbon emissions: A review of current studies and future research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1994, 102 (Suppl 4), 3.
 
28.
KAISER, E.W., SIEGL, W.O., COTTON, D.F. et al. Effect of fuel structure on emission from a spark-ignited engine. 2. naphthene and aromatic fuels. Environmental Science & Technology. 1992, 26(8), 1581.
 
29.
KAISER, E.W., SIEGL, W.O., COTTON, D.F. et al. Effect of fuel structure on emission from a spark-ignited engine. 3. olefinic fuels. Environmental Science & Technology. 1993, 27(7), 1440.
 
30.
ELGHAWI, U., MISZTAL, J., TSOLAKIS, A. et al. GC–MS speciation and quantification of 1,3-butadiene and other C1–C6 hydrocarbon in SI/HCCI V6 engine exhaust. SAE Technical Paper. 2008-01-0012, 2008.
 
31.
GLASSMAN, I. Combustion. Academic Press. San Diego 1996.
 
32.
GREGORY, D., JACKSON, R.A. Mechanisms for the formation of exhaust hydrocarbon in a single cylinder SI engine, fueled with deuterium-labelled ortho-, meta- and para-xylene. Combustion and Flame. 1999, 118, 459.
 
33.
ZHAO, H. HCCI and CAI engines for the automotive industry. CRC Press. Cambridge 2007.
 
eISSN:2658-1442
ISSN:2300-9896