The subject of the article is the verification on a real scale of the technology for producing a catalytic system of engine exhaust gases with a mass reduction of approx.20%, meeting the Euro IV, V and VI emission standards using an innovative method of using waste, the so called „washcoat” from the recovery of precious metals used to make the active layer of the catalyst. The share of recycled precious metals is up to 20%. The intermediate layer consists of 70% washcoat mainly containing aluminium oxide and up to 20% washcoat with recycled precious metals. The active layer consists of precious metals, i.e. platinium, palladium and rhodium, in the right ratio and amount per 1 liter of catalytic block to achieve the specified emission standard. Due to the qualification of rare earth materials as critical, it allows to reduce the use of raw materials to 20% depending on the monolith model. The project focuses on a low-carbon economy and resilience to climate change.
Awad OI, Ma X, Kamil M, Ali OM, Zhang Z, Shuai S. Particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection engines: a review of how current emission regulations are being met by automobile manufacturers. Sci Total Environ. 2020;718:137302.
Baldauf RW, Devlin RB, Gehr P, Gianelli R, Hassett-Sipple B, Jung H et al. Ultrafine particle metrics and research considerations: review of the 2015 UFP Workshop. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;13(11):1054.
Blažek M, Žalud M, Kočí P, York A, Schlepütz C, Stampanoni M et al. Washcoating of catalytic particulate filters studied by time-resolved X-ray tomography. Chem Eng J. 2021;409:128057.
Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on end-of-life vehicles (OJ L 269, 21.10.2000, p. 34).
Drzewiecki P. Device for recovering platinum from spent automotive catalysts using a magnetohydrodynamic pump. Materiały Śląskiego Środowiskowego Studium Doktoranckiego 2013.
Fornalczyk A, Kraszewski M, Willner J, Kaduková J, Mrážiková A, Marcinčáková R et al. Dissolution of metal supported spent auto catalyst in acids. Arch Metall Mater. 2015;61(1):233-236.
Fuć P. Influence of the composition and parameters of the catalytic bed modified with nanoparticle ruthenium on the emission of harmful exhaust components from a compression-ignition engine. Doctoral dissertation, Poznań 2002.
Fuć P, Kamińska M, Kołodziejek D, Szymlet N, Grzeszczyk R. Measurement of rail vehicles exhaust emissions. Combustion Engines. 2022;189(2):10-17.
Fuć P, Rymaniak Ł, Ziółkowski A. The correlation of distribution of PM numer emitted under actual conditions of operation PC and HDV vehicle. Air Pollution XXI, WIT Press 2013;174:207-218.
Hensel C, Konieczny R, Brück R. Recycling technology for metallic substrates: a closed cycle. SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0596. 2000.
Imaoka Y, Hashizume Y, Inoue T, Shiraishi T. A study of particulate emission formation mechanism from injector tip in direct-injection gasoline engines. SAE Int J Adv & Curr Prac in Mobility. 2020;2(1):376-384.
Kim HJ, Choi MG, Park MK, Seo YR. Predictive and prognostic biomarkers of respiratory diseases due to particulate matter exposure. J Cancer Prev. 2017;22(1):6-15.
Lijewski P, Kozak M, Fuć P, Rymaniak Ł, Ziółkowski A. Exhaust emissions generated under actual operating conditions from a hybrid vehicle and an electric one fitted with a range extender, Transport Res D-Tr E. 2020;78:102183.
Merkisz J, Fuć P, Lijewski P. Physicochemical aspects of the construction and operation of particulate filters. Publishig House of Poznan University of Technology, Poznań 2016.
Merkisz J, Pielecha J. Particulate emissions from automotive sources, Publishig House of Poznan University of Technology, Poznań 2014.
Merkisz J, Siedlecki M, Ziółkowski A, Fuć P, Lijewski P. Methods of reducing emission from HDV Euro VI engines. Combustion Engines. 2015,162(3):480-486.
Ohlwein S, Kappeler R, Joss MK, Künzli N, Hoffmann B. Health effects of ultrafine particles: a systematic literature review update of epidemiological evidence. Int J Public Health. 2019;64(4):547-559.
Specialty Metals. (accessed on 19.01.2021).
Trading Economics. (accessed on 07.04.2021).
Trębacz H, Michno P. The evaluation of platinum group metals (PGMs) and their recovery from car catalytic converters, Structure and Environment. 2017;9(2):133-147.
Umicore. Precious Metals Refining: (accessed on 31.01.2021).
Wołowicz A. Use of palladium and its compounds with particular emphasis on catalysis. Przem Chem. 2013;92(7):1237.
Xun D, Hao H, Sun X, Liu Z, Zhao F. End-of-life recycling rates of platinum group metals in the automotive industry: Insight into regional disparities. J Clean Prod. 2020;266:121942.
Yang J, Stewart M, Maupin G, Herling D, Zelenyuk A. Single wall diesel particulate filter (DPF) filtration efficiency studies using laboratory generated particles. Chem Eng Sci. 2009;64(8):1625-1634.
Zamboni G, Dressino L, Boileau H, A tool for the assessment of the potential benefits of electric and hybrid cars for emissions reduction in urban areas. Int J Environ Stud. 2020;77(4):703-723.
Zhang Z, Zhao J, Man H, Qi L, Yin H, Lv Z et al. Updating emission inventories for vehicular organic gases: indications from cold-start and temperature effects on advanced technology cars. Sci Total Environ. 2023;882:163544.
Zhiliang Y, Xinyue C, Xianbao S, Yingzhi Z, Xintong W, Kebin H. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis. Atmos Environ. 2014;94:198-204.
Ziółkowski A, Fuć P, Jagielski A, Bednarek M. Analysis of emissions and fuel consumption in freight transport. Energies. 2022;15:4706.
Ziółkowski A, Fuć P, Lijewski P, Rymaniak Ł, Daszkiewicz P, Kamińska M et al. Analysis of exhaust emission measurements in rural conditions from heavy-duty vehicle. Combustion Engines. 2020;182(3):54-58.