The increasing efficiency of the transport system during the last 100 hundred years has fuelled and sustained the unprecedent economic growth of our society. It has shaped our livestyles and influenced the development of our cities and town. At the same time it has posed several challenges to our world as the provision of transport opportunities has heavily contribuitred to the depletion of natural resources, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Road transport in particular has had a major role into this. Several policies have been introduced during the last 50 years in the attempt to limit the impact of the transport system, but they have been effective only to a certain extent. During the last years, however, new technologies and social trends are promising to disrupt the transport system and make it substantially more efficient and more sustanable. The present paper discusses the possibile environmental impacts of some of the new technologies applied to transport, in particular highlighting how its complexity may jeopardize the possible improvements that the new technologies promise without properly governing their use.
VESPE, M., MINORA, U., IACUS, S. et al. Restrictions in Italy using Mobile Network Operator Data. EUR 30630 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg 2021., JRC124130.
ALONSO RAPOSO, M., CIUFFO, B., ARDENTE, F. et al. The future of road transport – implications of automated, connected, low-carbon and shared mobility. EUR 29748 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg 2019., JRC116644.
CASCETTA, E. Transportation Systems Analysis, Models and Applications. Springer 2009.
TSAKALIDIS, A., VAN BALEN, M., GKOUMAS, K. et al. Research and innovation in transport electrification in Europe. EUR 30387 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg 2020. JRC120533.
European Parliament. CO2 emissions from cars: facts and figures (infographics). 2019. (accessed 5.08.2021).
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Official Journal of the European Commission. L 140, 5.6.2009, 1-15.
FONTARAS, G., ZACHAROF, N.-G., CIUFFO, B. Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Europe – laboratory versus real-world emissions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 2017, 60, 97-131.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regulation (EC) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008. Official Journal of the European Union. L 175, 2017, 1-643.
PAVLOVIC, J., CIUFFO, B., FONTARAS, G. et al. How much difference in type-approval CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Europe can be expected from changing to the new test procedure (NEDC vs. WLTP)? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2018, 111.
WEISS, M., BONNEL, P., HUMMEL, R. et al. On-road emissions of light-duty vehicles in Europe. Environmental Science & Technology. 2011, 45(19), 8575-8581. JRC65638.
WEISS M., BONNEL P., HUMMEL, R. et al. A complementary emissions test for light-duty vehicles: Assessing the technical feasibility of candidate procedures. EUR 25572. Luxembourg (Luxembourg): Publications Office of the European Union; 2013. JRC75998.
VALVERDE MORALES, V., CLAIROTTE, M., BONNEL, P. et al. Joint Research Centre 2018 light-duty vehicles emissions testing, EUR 29897 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 2019. JRC117625.,.
KERAMIDAS, K., TCHUNG-MING, S., DIAZ-VAZQUEZ, A.R. et al. Global energy and climate outlook 2018: Sectoral mitigation options towards a low-emissions economy – Global context to the EU strategy for long-term greenhouse gas emissions reduction. EUR 29462 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 2018. JRC113446.
HILL, N., AMARAL, S., MORGAN-PRICE, S. Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fuelled vehicles through LCA. Final Report for the European Commission, DG Climate Action. 2020 Contract Ref. 34027703/2018/782375/ETU/CLIMA.C.4. (accessed on 5.08.2021).
HE, Y., MAKRIDIS, M., FONTARAS, G. et al. The energy impact of adaptive cruise control in real-world highway multiple-car-following scenarios. European Transport Research Review. 2020, 12.
CIUFFO, B., MATTAS, K., MAKRIDIS, K. et al. Requiem on the positive effects of commercial adaptive cruise control on motorway traffic and recommendations for future automated driving systems. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 2021, 130, 103305.
FIORI, C., ARCIDIACONO, V., FONTARAS, G. et al. The effect of an electrified mobility on the relationship between traffic conditions and energy consumption. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2019, 67, 275-290.
GAWRON, J.H., KEOLEIAN, G.A., DE KLEINE, R.D. et al. Life cycle assessment of connected and automated vehicles: sensing and computing subsystem and vehicle level effects. Environmental Science & Technology. 2018, 52(5), 3249-3256.
TAIEBAT, M., STOLPER, S., XU, M. Forecasting the impact of connected and automated vehicles on energy use: a microeconomic study of induced travel and energy rebound. Applied Energy. 2019, 247, 297-308.
AURAMBOUT, J.P., GKOUMAS, K., CIUFFO, B. Last-mile delivery by drones: an estimation of viable market potential and access to citizens across European cities. European Transport Research Review. 2019, 11, 1-21.
FIGLIOZZI, M.A. Lifecycle modeling and assessment of unmanned aerial vehicles (Drones) CO2e emissions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017, 57, 251-261.
Agora Verkehrswende. On autopilot to a more efficient future? How data processing by connected and autonomous vehicles will impact energy consumption. 2021. https://www.agora-verkehrswend... (accessed on 5.08.2021).
BLAGOEVA, D.T., ALVES DIAS, P., MARMIER, A. et al. Assessment of potential bottlenecks along the materials supply chain for the future deployment of low-carbon energy and transport technologies in the EU, wind power, photovoltaic and electric vehicles technologies, time frame: 2015-2030. EUR 28192 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg 2016. JRC103778.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Raw materials scoreboard 2018. European innovation partnership on raw materials. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg 2018.
ALVES DIAS, P., BLAGOEVA, D., PAVEL, C. et al. Cobalt: demand-supply balances in the transition to electric mobility. EUR 29381 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. JRC112285. Luxembourg 2018.
MATHIEUX, F., ARDENTE, F., BOBBA, S. et al. Critical raw materials and the circular economy – background report. EUR 28832 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. JRC108710. Luxembourg 2017.
SALTELLI, A., FUNTOVICZ, S. When all models are wrong. Issues in Science and Technology. 2014, 30(2), 79-85. (accessed on 5.08.2021).
European Network of Living Labs. What are Living Labs. Eur. Netw. Living Labs. 2020. (accessed 6.08.2021).
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Special Eurobarometer survey on expectations and concerns of connected and automated riving. (accessed 24.08.2021).
Research and Innovation Supporting the European Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy: A Technology Perspective from Recent European Union Projects
Konstantinos Gkoumas, dos Marques, Marcin Stepniak, Ferenc Pekár
Applied Sciences
Effect of Coating and Low Viscosity Oils on Piston Ring Friction under Mixed Regime of Lubrication through Analytical Modelling
Anastasios Zavos
Assessment of On-Board and Laboratory Gas Measurement Systems for Future Heavy-Duty Emissions Regulations
Barouch Giechaskiel, Tobias Jakobsson, Hua Karlsson, M. Khan, Linus Kronlund, Yoshinori Otsuki, Jürgen Bredenbeck, Stefan Handler-Matejka
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Assessment of Components Sizing and Energy Management Algorithms Performance for a Parallel PHEV
Nikolaos Aletras, Stylianos Doulgeris, Zissis Samaras, Leonidas Ntziachristos
SAE Technical Paper Series