The study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the C5-C11 hydrocarbon species generated in Spark Ignition – Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (SI/HCCI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine at range of operating conditions. The presented results and data were obtained from the combustion of winter grade commercial gasoline containing 2% w/w ethanol (C2H5OH) for the engine operated in steady-state, fully warmed-up condition. The hydrocarbon analysis in exhaust gases was executed on a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) apparatus directly connected to the engine exhaust via heated line. The highest concentration of the total hydrocarbon emissions was obtained under low load HCCI engine operation at stoichiometric fuel-air ratio. The major hydrocarbon compounds detected in the collected samples were benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and naphthalene. Benzene originates from the incomplete combustion of toluene and other alkylbenzenes which are of considerable environmental interest. During the SI engine operation, increase of the engine speed and load resulted in the increase of benzene and the total olefinic species with simultaneous decrease in isopentane and isooctane. The same trends are seen with the engine operating under HCCI mode, but since the combustion temperature is always lower than SI mode under the same engine conditions, the oxidation of fuel paraffin in the former case was less. As a result, the total olefins and benzene levels in HCCI mode were lower than the corresponding amount observed in SI mode. Aromatic compounds (e.g., toluene), except for benzene, were produced at lower levels in the exhaust when the engine speed and load for both modes were increased.
One of the authors (Elghawi) would like to acknowledge the Libyan Government for the provision of the scholarships and Professor Wyszynski and his group for accepting him in their laboratory in the department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, the UK. Jaguar is acknowledged for supporting the work with the research engine
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