Directions in vehicle efficiency and emissions
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Publication date: 2016-08-01
Combustion Engines 2016,166(3), 3–8
This paper provides a general review of light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) regulations, engine technology, and key emission control strategies. The US is placing a stronger emphasis on laboratory emissions, and the LD regulations are about an order of magnitude tighter than Euro 6, but Europe is focusing on real-world reductions. The California HD low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. The second phase of US HD greenhouse gas regulations propose another 25-30% tightening beyond Phase 1, beginning in 2021. LD and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. LD gasoline concepts are closing the gap with diesel. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% BTE using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. LD and HD diesel NOx technology trends are also summarized. NOx storage catalysts and SCR combinations are the lead approach to meeting the LD regulations. Numerous advanced NOx technologies are being evaluated and some promise for meeting the California HD low NOx targets. Oxidation catalysts are improved for both diesel and methane oxidation applications. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are the lead approach to reducing particles from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. They reduce PAH emissions, and catalyzed versions can be designed for low back pressure. Regeneration largely occurs during hot decelerations.