The following research presents a numerical evaluation of existing and conceptual urea-mixing devices used in close-coupled (to the engine) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The analysis was aimed at the assessment of urea-mixing devices that could considerably enhance the reduction of nitrogen oxides from the diesel-engine combustion process under a wide range of operating conditions, including cold starts. The analysis showed that replacing blade-equipped static mixers with perforated stationary mixing devices may provide a more uniform spatial distribution of ammonia at the inlet to the SCR catalyst and reduce pressure drops generated by mixing devices. Moreover, the conceptual mixing devices, based on combinations of the blade and perforated mixers to develop intensive turbulence, enabled the increase of the mixing length leading to effective decomposition of the urea-water solution (UWS), and provided uniform spatial distribution of ammonia, even for the small-sized mixing systems. However, the intensive mixing was often associated with a significant rise in the pressure drop.
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