KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The article presents an overview of technical solutions for dual fuel systems used in internal combustion engines. It covers the historical and contemporary genesis of using two fuels simultaneously in the combustion process. The authors pay attention to the value of the excess air coefficient in the cylinder, as the ignitability of the fuel dose near the spark plug is a critical factor. The mixture formation of compression ignition based systems are also analyzed. The results of research on indirect and direct injection systems (and their combinations) have been presented. Research sections were separated based to the use of gasoline with other fuels or diesel oil with other fuels. It was found that the use of two fuels in different configurations of the fuel supply systems extends the conditions for the use of modern combustion systems (jet controlled compression ignition, reactivity controlled compression ignition, intelligent charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition), which will enable further improvement of combustion efficiency.
 
REFERENCES (47)
1.
ALASFOUR, F.N. NOx emission from a spark ignition engine using 30% iso-butanol – gasoline blend: part 2 – ignition timing. Applied Thermal Engineering. 1998, 18(8), 609-618. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1359-....
 
2.
ASHOK, B., ASHOK, S.D., KUMAR, C.R. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – a critical review. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 2015, 54(2), 105-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.....
 
3.
BARAL, B., RAINE, R. Knock in a spark ignition engine fuelled with gasoline-kerosene blends. SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2417. 2008. https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-0....
 
4.
BARNABY, J., RUSSELL, W. Dual fuel engine. Patent US2400219A, 15.12.1944.
 
5.
BENAJES, J., GARCÍA, A., MONSALVE-SERRANO, J. et al. Benefits of E85 versus gasoline as low reactivity fuel for an automotive diesel engine operating in reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion mode. Energy Conversion and Management. 2018, 159, 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enco....
 
6.
BOGIN, G.E., LUECKE, J., RATCLIFF, M.A. et al. Effects of iso-octane/ethanol blend ratios on the observance of nega-tive temperature coefficient behavior within the Ignition Quality Tester. Fuel. 2016, 186, 82-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
7.
BORETTI, A. Numerical study of the substitutional diesel fuel energy in a dual fuel diesel-LPG engine with two direct injectors per cylinder. Fuel Processing Technology. 2017, 161, 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fupr....
 
8.
BORETTI, A., WATSON, H. Development of a direct injection high efficiency liquid phase LPG spark ignition engine. SAE International Journal of Engines. 2009, 2(1), 1639-1649. https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-0....
 
9.
CAI, Y., JIA, M., XU, G. et al. Feasibility study of the combustion strategy of n-butanol/diesel dual direct injection (DI2) in a compression-ignition engine. Fuel. 2021, 289, 119865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
10.
DALHA, I.B., SAID, M.A., KARIM, A. et al. Reactivity controlled compression ignition: an advanced combustion mode for improved energy efficiency. In: Sulaiman S. (eds) Energy efficiency in mobility systems. Springer 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-98....
 
11.
DE FERREIRA GOMES, P., MENDES, C., LOPES, G. et al. High efficiency flex-fuel engines and the end of the 70% paradigm. SAE Technical Paper 2017-36-0162. 2017. https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-3....
 
12.
DONG, Y., KAARIO, O., HASSAN, G. et al. High-pressure direct injection of methanol and pilot diesel: A non-premixed dual-fuel engine concept. Fuel. 2020, 277, 117932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
13.
ELFASAKHANY, A. Gasoline engine fueled with bioethanol-bioacetone-gasoline blends: Performance and emissions exploration. Fuel. 2020, 274, 117825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
14.
GILOWSKI, T., STELMASIAK, Z. Impact of symmetrical division of initial dosage diesel oil on the selected thermodynamic parameters of the working medium and operation parameters dual fuel engine fuelled CNG. Combustion Engines. 2013, 154(3).
 
15.
GONG, G., LI, Z., YI, L. et al. Experimental investigation of equivalence ratio effects on combustion and emissions characteristics of an H2/methanol dual-injection engine under different spark timings. Fuel. 2020, 262, 116463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
16.
GUO, Z., YU, X., LI, G. et al. Comparative study of different injection modes on combustion and particle emission of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and gasoline in a dual-injection SI engine. Fuel. 2020, 281, 118786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
17.
HOTH, A., KOLODZIEJ, C.P., ROCKSTROH, T. et al. Combustion characteristics of PRF and TSF ethanol blends with RON 98 in an instrumented CFR engine. SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1672. 2018. https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-0....
 
18.
HUANG, G., LI, Z., ZHAO, W. et al. Effects of fuel injection strategies on combustion and emissions of intelligent charge compression ignition (ICCI) mode fueled with methanol and biodiesel. Fuel. 2020, 274, 117851. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
19.
HUANG, Y., HONG, G., HUANG, R. Numerical investigation to the dual-fuel spray combustion process in an ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 2015, 92, 275-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enco....
 
20.
JI, C., WANG, S. Effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emissions performance of a spark ignition gasoline engine at lean conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2009, 34(18), 7823-7834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhy....
 
21.
JWA, K., NAM, V.D., SETIAWAN, A. et al. Experimental study of the ignition delay of gasoline/biodiesel blends using a rapid compression expansion machine. Energy Procedia. 2019, 158, 655-660, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyp....
 
22.
KALWAR A., SINGH, A.P., AGARWAL, A.K. Utilization of primary alcohols in dual-fuel injection mode in a gasoline direct injection engine. Fuel. 2020, 276, 118068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
23.
KANG, R., ZHOU, L., HUA, J. et al. Experimental investigation on combustion characteristics in dual-fuel dual-injection engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 2019, 181, 15-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enco....
 
24.
KARAVALAKIS, G., SHORT, D., VU, D. et al. A complete assessment of the emissions performance of ethanol blends and iso-butanol blends from a fleet of nine PFI and GDI vehicles. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2015, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-0....
 
25.
LATA, D.B., MISRA, A., MEDHEKAR, S. Investigations on the combustion parameters of a dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2011, 36(21), 13808-13819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhy....
 
26.
LEE, J., CHU, S., MIN, K. et al. Classification of diesel and gasoline dual-fuel combustion modes by the analysis of heat release rate shapes in a compression ignition engine. Fuel. 2017, 209, 587-597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
27.
LI, H., LI, C., MA, X. et al. Numerical study of DMF and gasoline spray and mixture preparation in a GDI engine. SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1592. 2013. https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-0....
 
28.
LIU, H., WANG, Z., WANG, J. Methanol-gasoline DFSI (dual-fuel spark ignition) combustion with dual-injection for engine knock suppression. Energy. 2014, 73, 686-693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ener....
 
29.
LIU, X., SRNA, A., YIP, H.L. et al. Performance and emis-sions of hydrogen-diesel dual direct injection (H2DDI) in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2021, 46(1), 1302-1314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhy....
 
30.
LONG, W., LI, B., CAO, J. et al. Effects of dual-direct injection parameters on performance of fuel Jet Controlled Compression Ignition mode on a high-speed light duty engine. Fuel. 2019, 235, 658-669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
31.
MITUKIEWICZ, G., DYCHTO, R., LEYKO, J. Relationship between LPG fuel and gasoline injection duration for gasoline direct injection engines. Fuel. 2015, 153, 526-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
32.
MORENO, F., MUÑOZ, M., ARROYO, J. et al. Efficiency and emissions in a vehicle spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen and methane blends. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2012, 37(15), 11495-11503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhy....
 
33.
NAYAK, V., RASHMI, G.S., CHITRAGAR, P. et al. Combustion characteristics and cyclic variation of a LPG fuelled MPFI four cylinder gasoline engine. Energy Procedia. 2016, 90, 470-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyp....
 
34.
NING, L., DUAN, Q., KOU, H. et al. Parametric study on effects of methanol injection timing and methanol substitution percentage on combustion and emissions of methanol/diesel dual-fuel direct injection engine at full load. Fuel. 2020, 279, 118424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
35.
ROTH, P., YANG, J., PENG, W. et al. Intermediate and high ethanol blends reduce secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline direct injection vehicles. Atmospheric Environment. 2020, 220, 117064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmo....
 
36.
SAITEJA, P., ASHOK, B. A critical insight review on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine characteristics powered by biofuels. Fuel. 2021, 285, 119202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
37.
SCHLATTER, S., SCHNEIDER, B., WRIGHT, Y.M. et al. N-heptane micro pilot assisted methane combustion in a rapid compression expansion machine. Fuel. 2016, 179, 339-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
38.
SERRANO, D., OBIOLS, J., LECOINTE, B. Optimization of dual fuel diesel-methane operation on a production passenger car engine – thermodynamic analysis. SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2505. 2013. https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-0....
 
39.
SUN, P., LIU, Z., YU, X. et al. Experimental study on heat and exergy balance of a dual-fuel combined injection engine with hydrogen and gasoline. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2019, 44(39), 22301-22315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhy....
 
40.
SZYBIST, J., FOSTER, M., MOORE, W.R. et al. Investigation of knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends. SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0619. 2010. https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-0....
 
41.
TIAN, Z., ZHEN, X., WANG, Y. et al. Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol-gasoline blends in SI direct injection gasoline engine. Renewable Energy. 2020, 146, 267-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rene....
 
42.
WINDSOR, H. One car – two gas tanks. Popular Mechanics. 1948.
 
43.
XU, G., KOTZAGIANNI, M., KYRTATOS, P. et al. Experimental and numerical investigations of the unscavenged pre-chamber combustion in a rapid compression and expansion machine under engine-like conditions. Combustion and Flame. 2019, 204, 68-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comb....
 
44.
XU, Y., ZHANG, Y., GONG, J. et al. Combustion behaviours and emission characteristics of a retrofitted NG/gasoline duel-fuel SI engine with various proportions of NG-gasoline blends. Fuel. 2020, 266, 116957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
45.
YOU, J., LIU, Z., WANG, Z. et al. Impact of natural gas injection strategies on combustion and emissions of a dual fuel natural gas engine ignited with diesel at low loads. Fuel. 2020, 260, 116414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
46.
YÜKSEL, F., CEVIZ, M.A. Thermal balance of a four stroke SI engine operating on hydrogen as a supplementary fuel. Energy. 2003, 28(11), 1069-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0360-....
 
47.
ZHAO, W., LI, Z., HUANG, G. et al. Experimental investigation of direct injection dual fuel of n-butanol and biodiesel on intelligent charge compression ignition (ICCI) combustion mode. Applied Energy. 2020, 266, 114884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apen....
 
eISSN:2658-1442
ISSN:2300-9896