In electric vehicles, as in hybrids vehicles, a very important factor affecting the energy efficiency of the powertrain is the ability to use the regenerative braking energy. Depending on the settings available in electric vehicles, the driver can choose different modes of operation: switch off the regenerative braking mode altogether, select the intensity of regenerative braking, or leave the control system in automatic mode. The last mode is often the only one available on eclectic vehicles, so the driver cannot decide whether to switch off or increase intensity of the regenerative braking. This paper presents a new method for evaluating the energy efficiency of electric vehicle powertrains under urban operating conditions. The presented method uses a procedure for mapping the operating conditions allowing to determine the reference level of energy consumption in relation to those recorded during the identifica-tion tests. Identification tests were carried out in the Tri-City area using electric vehicles of different purposes and operating parameters. Performed tests allowed to evaluate the regenerative braking efficiency of tested vehicle, which varies over a relatively wide range, for vehicle A from 33% to 77%, for vehicle B from 27% to 55% and for vehicle C from 36% to 58%. It can be concluded that one of the main factors determining the regenerative braking efficiency is the level of state of charge of the accumu-lator and the management algorithm used by the vehicle for controlling this parameter.
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Formula Student class electric vehicle energy storage - study and design assumptions
Piotr Hemlecki, Paweł Fabiś
Combustion Engines
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