Influence of (hydrous) ethanol blends on (particle) emissions of small 2-& 4-stroke scooters Part 1
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Publication date: 2011-02-01
Combustion Engines 2011,144(1), 29-36
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nanoparticles counts (NP) were carried out. The present investigations did not concern the durability of parts exposed to the chemical influences of ethanol. Also the cold start, particularly in extreme conditions and the lube oil dilution were not addressed.
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