The article presents the classification of motor fuels into conventional and unconventional. The concept of replacement fuels is formalized as fuels that can replace conventional petroleum fuels for spark ignition and self-ignition engines without any structural or regulatory changes. The criteria for qualification unconventional fuels as replacement fuels are presented. This article also introduces the results of empirical research conducted on a single-cylinder research engine powered by diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl esters (RME) in summer version and winter version. The engine was tested and the combustion phenomenon in the cylinder was analyzed. Very similar engine properties were observed for diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl esters (RME) in the summer version, while greater differences were found for rapeseed methyl esters (RME) with winter additives. In light of the empirical research and the physicochemical properties of the fuels, it is concluded that RME warrants consideration as replacement fuel for engines with self-ignition, especially in the case of biofuel in the summer version.
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