Exhaust emissions of particulate matter from light-duty vehicles – an overview and the current situation
More details
Hide details
BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biała
Publication date: 2017-11-01
Combustion Engines 2017,171(4), 227–238
Emissions of particulate matter associated with the use of light-duty vehicles are an increasingly important topic, with more and more political attention focused on this issue. Now that direct injection Diesel engines feature DPFs, particle emissions from other engine types operating on other fuels are also of great interest. This paper discusses the phenomenon in general, briefly reviews worldwide legislation and emissions limits and presents the results of a laboratory test programme measuring the particle emissions from a range of vehicles. The experimental programme showed that the engine/fuel type has a greater impact on particle emissions than the test conditions.
ABDUL-KHALEK, I., KITTELSON, D., BREAR, F. The influence of dilution conditions on diesel exhaust particle size distribution measurements. SAE Technical Paper. 1999, 1999-01-1142, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1142.
AMARAL, S.S., DE CARVALHO, J.A., COSTA, M.A.M., PINHEIRO, C. An overview of particulate matter measurement instruments. Atmosphere. 2015, 6, 1327-1345, doi: 10.3390/atmos6091327.
ANDERSSON, J., MAY, J., FAVRE, C., BOSTEELS, D. et al. On-road and chassis dynamometer evaluations of emissions from two Euro 6 diesel vehicles. SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2014, 7(3), doi:10.4271/2014-01-2826.
BAROUCH, G., RICCOBONO, F., VLACHOS, T. et al. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2015, 3, 82, doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00082.
BIELACZYC, P., WOODBURN, J., SZCZOTKA, A. Exhaust emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants measured over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC chassis dynamometer driving cycles. SAE Technical Paper. 2016, 2016-01-1008, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1008.
BIELACZYC, P., WOODBURN, J., SZCZOTKA, A. A comparison of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for vehicles tested over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC chassis dynamometer test cycles. SAE Technical Paper. 2015, 2015-01-1065, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1065.
CÉDRIC, L., GORIAUX, M., TASSEL, P. et al. Impact of aftertreatment device and driving conditions on black carbon, ultrafine particle and NOx emissions for Euro 5 diesel and gasoline vehicles. Transportation Research Procedia. 2016, 14, 3079-3088, doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.454.
CHASE, R., DUSZKIEWICZ, G., RICHERT, J. et al. PM measurement artifact: organic vapor deposition on different filter media. SAE Technical Paper. 2004, 2004-01-0967, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0967.
DEMUYNCK, J., BOSTEELS, D., DE PAEPE, M. et al. Recommendations for the new WLTP cycle based on an analysis of vehicle emission measurements on NEDC and CADC. Energy Policy. 2012, 49, 234-242, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.081.
EASTWOOD, P. Particulate emissions from vehicles. ISBN: 978-0-470-72455-2, Wiley, Chichester 2008.
GIECHASKIEL, B., SCHIEFER, E., SCHINDLER, W., et al. Overview of soot emission measurements instrumentation: from smoke and filter mass to particle number. SAE Int. J. Engines. 2013, 6(1), 10-22, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0138.
KERN, B., SPIESS, S., RICHTER, J. Comprehensive gasoline exhaust gas aftertreatment, an effective measure to minimize the contribution of modern direct injection engines to fine dust and soot emissions? SAE Technical Paper. 2014.2014-01-1513, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1513.
KHALED, I., PREMNATH, V. Comparison among DMS 500, EEPS SMPS, MSS, EC/OC, CPMA, using laboratory ‘soot’ particles. Cambridge Particle Meeting. July 3, 2015. www.cambridgeparticlemeeting.o... (accessed 09.11.2015).
KHALEK, I., KITTELSON, D., BREAR, F. Nanoparticle growth during dilution and cooling of diesel exhaust: experimental investigation and theoretical assessment. SAE Technical Paper. 2000, 2000-01-0515, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0515.
MAMAKOS, A., MANFREDI, U. Physical characterization of exhaust particle emissions from late technology gasoline vehicles. JRC report. 2012, 72196, doi:10.2788/32371.
MAROTTA, A., PAVLOVIC, J., CIUFFO, B. et al. Gaseous emissions from light-duty vehicles: moving from NEDC to the new WLTP test procedure. Environmental Science & Technology. 2015, 49(14), 8315-8322, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01364.
MAY, J., BOSTEELS, D., FAVRE, C. A comparison of light duty vehicle emissions over different test cycles and in real driving conditions. FISITA. 2014, F2014-CET-058.
MERKISZ, J., PIELECHA J. Nanoparticle emissions from combustion engines. Springer. 2015, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-15928-7.
RISTOVSKI, Z.D., MORAWSKA, L., HITCHINS, J. et al. Particle emissions from compressed natural gas engines. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2000, 31(4), doi:10.1016/S0021-8502(99)00530-3.
SAFFARIPOUR, M., CHAN, T.W., LIU, F. et al. Effect of drive cycle and gasoline particulate filter on the size and morphology of soot particles emitted from a gasoline-directinjection vehicle. Environmental Science & Technology. 2015, 49(19), 11950-11958, doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02185.
SCHINDLER, W., HAISCH, C., BECK, H. et al. A photoacoustic sensor system for time resolved quantification of diesel soot emissions. SAE Technical Paper. 2004, 2004-01-0968, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0968.
SCHREIBER, D., FORSS, A., MOHR, M., DIMOPOULOS, P. Particle characterisation of modern CNG, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. SAE Technical Paper. 2007, 2007-24-0123, doi:10.4271/2007-24-0123.
STEVEN, H. Further modifications on the gearshift calculation tool. WLTP presentation. WLTP-DHC-17-02e, 2013, unece.org (accessed 20.12.2016).
STEVEN, H. Status report about the work of the task force on gearshift issues. WLTP presentation. WLTP-15-04e, 2016, unece.org (accessed 20.12.2016).
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Addendum 15: Global technical regulation No. 15 – Global technical regulation on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures. 28.10.2016, www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/tr... (accessed 18.11.2016).
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Addendum 82: Regulation No. 83 Revision 5. 4.02.2015, www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/tr... (accessed 4.03.2015).
WEI, Q., AKARD, M., PORTER, S., NAKAMURA, H. The Effect of Drive Cycles on PM emission characteristics from a gasoline vehicle. SAE Technical Paper. 2009, 2009-01-1119, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1119.
WHELAN, I., SMITH, W., TIMONEY, D., SAMUEL, S. The effect of engine operating conditions on engine-out particulate matter from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start. SAE Technical Paper. 2012, 2012-01-1711, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1711.
ZHANG, X., CHEN, L., LIANG, Z., SHUAI, S. Characterizing particulate matter emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles under transient and cold start conditions. Fuel. 2017, 189, 131-140, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.055.
Comparison of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in WLTP and NEDC procedures
Combustion Engines
Experimental Study on the Impact of Lubricant Ash on CN6 After-Treatment System Performance of GDI Vehicle
Jinchong Pan, Lun Hua, Yansong Lin, Sheng Liu, Jun Zhang, Lei Zhao, Joerg Richter, Susanne Kunert, Jan Schoenhaber, Juergen Gieshoff
SAE Technical Paper Series