Passenger vehicles equipped with conventional drives, in which the internal combustion engine is the only source of energy, dominate on Polish and European roads. Despite the trend of electrification of means of road transport, conventional vehicles are still the most frequently purchased by customers. An alternative are vehicles with a hybrid drive system. They are characterized by lower fuel consumption and lower emission of harmful exhaust compounds compared to conventional vehicles. The aim of this paper is to examine the dependence between route parameters and fuel consumption and emissions of harmful exhaust components of vehicles with a conventional and hybrid drive system.
Adnan N, Vasant PM, Rahman I, Noor A. Adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle among Malaysian consumers. Industrial Engineering & Management, 2016;5(2):1000185.
Alessandrini A, Orecchini F, Ortenzi F, Campbell FV. Drive-style emissions testing on the latest two Honda hybrid technologies. Eur Transp Res Rev. 2009;1:57-66.
Alvarez R, Weilenmann M. Effect of low ambient temperature on fuel consumption and pollutant and CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions. Fuel. 2012;97:119-124.
Anttila P, Nummelin T, Väätäinen K, Laitila J, Ala-Ilomäki J, Kilpeläinen A. Effect of vehicle properties and driving environment on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of timber trucking based on data from fleet management system. Transport Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives. 2022;15:100671.
Bartholomeu DB, Filho JVC. Quantification of the environmental impacts of road conditions in Brazil. Ecol Econ. 2009;68(6):1778-1786.
Bielaczyc P, Merkisz J, Pielecha J, Woodburn J. A comparison of gaseous emissions from hybrid vehicle and a non-hybrid vehicle under real driving conditions. SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1272. 2018.
Brinklow G, Herreros JM, Rezaei SZ, Doustdar O, Tsolakis A, Kolpin A et al. Non-carbon greenhouse gas emissions for hybrid electric vehicles: three-way vatalyst nitrous oxide and ammonia trade-off. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2023.
Cane S, Brunelli L, Gallian S, Perazzo A, Brusa A, Cavina N. Performance assessment of a predictive pr-heating strategy for hybrid electric vehicle equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Appl Therm Eng. 2023;219(A):119341.
Commission proposes new Euro 7 standards to reduce pollutant emissions from vehicles and improve air quality. European Commission. 10 November 2022,
Commission Regulation (EU) No 459/2012 of 29 May 2012 amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 6) Text with EEA relevance.
Costagliola MA, Prati MV, Mariani A, Unich A, Morrone B. Gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions of hybrid and conventional cars over legislative and real driving cycles. Energy and Power Engineering. 2015;7(5):181-192.
Cubito C, Millo F, Boccardo G, Di Pierro G, Ciuffo B, Fontaras G et. al. Impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and energy management strategies of a Euro-6 hybrid electric vehicle. Energies. 2017;10(10):1590.
De Robbio R, Cameretti MC, Mancaruso E. Investigation by modeling of a plug-in hybrid electric commercial vehicle with diesel engine on WLTC. Fuel. 2022;317:123519.
Eifler G. Are hybrid powertrains the right solution to meet EU-Emission-Targets in 2030. 21. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium. Proceedings Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden 2021:181-203.
Feinauer M, Ehrenberger S, Epple F, Schripp T, Grein T. Investigating particulate and nitrogen oxides emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for a real-world driving scenario. Appl Sci. 2022;12(3):1404.
Fontaras G, Pistikopoulos P, Samaras Z. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles. Atmos Environ. 2008;42(18):4023-4035.
Franco V, Zacharopoulou T, Hammer J, Schmidt H, Mock P, Weiss M et al. Evaluation of exhaust emissions from three diesel-hybrid cars and simulation of after-treatment systems for ultralow real world NOx emissions. Environ Sci Technol. 2016;50(23):13151-13159.
Hamzah MI, Tanwir NS. Do pro-environmental factors lead to purchase intention of hybrid vehicles? The moderating effects of environmental knowledge. J Clean Prod. 2021;279:123643.
Huang Y, Surawski NC, Organ B, Zhou JL, Tang OHH, Chan EFC. Fuel consumption and emissions performance under real driving: comparison between hybrid and conventional vehicles. Sciof Total Environ. 2019;659:275-282.
Ivanov Y, Ivanov R, Kaadikyanov G, Staneva G, Danilov I. A study of the fuel consumption of hybrid Toyota Yaris. Transport Problems. 2019;14(1):155-167.
Karunanayake TRK, Wanninayake WMCB. Impact of key purchasing determinats on purchase intention of hybrid vehicle brands in Sri Lanka, an empirical study. Journal of Marketing Management. 2015;3(1):40-52.
Kulikov I, Kozlov A, Terenchenko A, Karpukhin K. Comparative study of powertrain hybridization for heavy-duty vehicles equipped with diesel and gas engines. Energies. 2020;13:2072.
Lasocki J, Gis M. The influence of driving pattern on pollutant emission and fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicle. Combustion Engines. 2019;177(2):145-150.
Luján JM, Garcia A, Monsalve-Serrano J, Martinez-Boggio S. Effectiveness of hybrid powertrains to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions of a Euro 6d-temp diesel engine under real-life driving conditions. Energ Convers Manage. 2019;199,:111987.
Melas A, Selleri T, Franzetti J, Ferrarese C, Suarez-Bertoa R, Giechaskiel B. On-road and laboratory emissions from three gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles-part 2: solid particle number emissions. Energies. 2022;15(14):5266.
Narayan JJ, Rai K, Naidu S, Greig T. A factor structure for adoption of hybrid vehicles: differing impact on males, females and different age groups. Research in Transportation Bussines & Management. 2022;45:100897.
Orecchini F, Santiangeli A, Zuccari F, Ortenzi F, Genovese A, Spazzafumo G et al. Energy consumption of a last generation full hybrid vehicle compared with conventional vehicle in real drive conditions. Energy Proced. 2018;148:289-296.
Pielecha J, Skobiej K, Kurtyka K. Exhaust emissions and energy consumption analysis of conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles in real driving cycles. Energies. 2020;13(23):6423.
Pignatta G, Balazadeh N. Hybrid vehicles as a transition for full e-mobility achievement in positive energy districts: a comparative assessment of real-driving emissions. Energies. 2022;15(8):2760.
Pitanuwat S, Srripakagorn A. An investigation of fuel economy potential of hybrid vehicles under real-world driving conditions in Bangkok. Energy Proced. 2015;79:1046-1053.
Plötz P, Funke SA, Jochem P. Empirical fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. J Ind Ecol. 2017;22(4):773-784.
Reynolds C, Kandlikar M. How hybrid-electric vehicles are fiferent from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and Power on fuel consumption. Environ Res Lett. 2007;2:014003.
Samras ZC, Kontses A, Dimaratos A, Kontses D, Balazs A, Hausberger S et al. A European regulatory perspective towards a Euro 7 proposal. SAE Technical Paper 2022-37-0032. 2022.
Šarkan B, Gnap J, Kiktová M. The importance of hybrid vehicles in urban traffic in terms of environmental impact. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019;85(3):115-122.
Selleri T, Melas AD, Franzetti J, Ferrarese C, Giechaskiel B, Suarez-Bertoa R. On-road and laboratory emissions from three gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles – part 1: regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and greenhouse gases. Energies. 2022;15(7):2401.
Selleri T, Melas A, Farrarese C, Franzetti J, Giechaskiel B, Suarez-Bertoa R. Emissions from a modern Euro 6d diesel plug-in hybrid. Atmosphere. 2022;13(8):1175.
Shahariar HGM, Bodisco TA, Zare A, Sajjad M, Jahirul MI, Van TC et al. Impact of driving style and traffic condition on emissions and fuel consumption during real-world transient operation. Fuel. 2022;319:123874.
Skuza A, Jurecki R, Szumska E. Analysis of the operating parameters of electric, hybrid and conventional vehicles on different types of roads. Open Engineering. 2023;13(1):20220443.
Suarez-Bertoa R, Astorga C. Impact of cold temperature on Euro 6 passenger car emissions. Environ Pollut. 2018;234:318-329.
Suarez-Bertoa R, Astorga C. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles. Atmos Environ. 2016;136:134-143.
Szramowiat M, Szałek A. Analysis of the operation of the hybrid drive system in the light of the proposed Euro 7 standard. Combustion Engines. 2021;187(4):65-68.
Szumska E, Jurecki R, Pawełczyk M. Evaluation of the use of hybrid electric powertrain system in urban traffic conditions. Eksploat Niezawodn. 2019;22(1):154-160.
Tansini A, Pavlovic J, Fontaras G. Quantyfying the real-world CO2 emissions and energy consumption of modern plug-in hybrid vehicles. J Clean Prod. 2022;362:132191.
Tanwir NS, Hamzah MI. Predicting purchase intention of hybrid electric vehicles: evidence from an emerging economy. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2020;11(2):35.
Wang Y, Biswas A, Rodriguez R, Keshavarz-Motamed Z, Emadi A. Hybrid electric vehicle specific engines: state-of-the-art review. Energy Report. 2022;8:832-851.
46. (accessed on 25.04.2023).