Investigations of emissions of reactive substances NO2 and NH3 from passenger cars
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Publication date: 2016-08-01
Combustion Engines 2016,166(3), 24–33
Public concern and complaints regarding ambient air in zones of dense traffic pertains to two compounds of nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3); both are toxic and strongly irritant, such that legal limitations are under discussion. This paper contributes to measuring methods as already in part proposed by GRPE subgroup WLTP-DTP (Worldwide Light Duty Test Procedures – Diesel Test Procedures) for NO2. Despite legally lowered NOx emission levels, lumping both, NO2 and NO, levels of NO2 have risen in cities and agglomerations as a result of both, deployed catalytic exhaust after-treatment devices and low sulphur Diesel fuels. In present tests two different combinations of NO2 measuring methods as proposed by WLTP were checked on Diesel cars for practicability in handling and accuracy. These integral, indirect methods (NO2 = NOx – NO) have been found as useful tools for estimate of NO2 and with use of appropriate analyzers a satisfactory accuracy was attained. Furthermore, attention was brought to ammonia (NH3) emitted by gasoline engines with three way catalysts (TWC) which ought not to be ignored while on the other hand SCR systems for Diesel engines are strictly regulated. Emission levels of more recent TWC turned out to be mostly below 20 ppm NH3. Vehicle of older technology exhibited significantly higher levels, about 10 times more. As chemical reactions depend on pressure and temperature (= i.e. flow condition in CVS-tunnel) as well as concentrations, doubts need to be considered on accuracy of results based on chemical reactive substances. Nevertheless, clear tendencies regarding changes of concentrations of NO2 and NH3 along the path-way could not be observed.