KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The BAT-CELL Bio-Ambient-Tests method is based on the assessment of the influence of the actual toxicity of various types of gas mixtures on living cells, taking into account the additive synergism. Work has been carried out on the application of the BAT-CELL method for testing engine exhaust gases. The application of computational fluid mechanics using Ansys Fluent made it possible to analyse the flow of engine exhaust gases through the aspiration system used, including analysis of shear stress values and their uniformity distribution on the bottom wall of the sampler containing cell culture on the bottom wall of the sampler. The appropriate flow rate of exhaust gases through the aspiration system and the shape of aspiration tubing for the sampler were selected in order to enable uniform contact of gas particles with the cell surface and not to damage them mechanically. The simulation results were verified in real-life tests and confirmed the theoretical assumptions.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work is a part of the research of the doctoral dissertation The method for the assessment of the toxicity of engine exhaust gases in the aspect of the analysis of the development of emission standard.
 
REFERENCES (33)
1.
BARRO, C., PARRAVICINI, M., BOULOUCHOS K. et al. Neat polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether in a diesel engine; part 2: exhaust emission analysis. Fuel. 2018, 234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel....
 
2.
BISIG, C., COMTE, P., GÜDEL, M. et al. Assessment of lung cell toxicity of various gasoline engine exhausts using a versatile in vitro exposure system. Environmental Pollution. 235, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envp....
 
3.
California Environmental Agency. https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/researc... (accessed 18 June 2020).
 
4.
CARSLAW, D.C., FARREN, N.J., VAUGHAN, A.R. The diminishing importance of nitrogen dioxide emissions from road vehicle exhaust. Atmospheric Environment: X. 2019, 1, 100002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeao....
 
5.
DEGRAEUWE, B., WEISS, M. Does the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) really fail to capture the NOx emissions of diesel cars in Europe? Environmental Pollution. 2017, 222, 234-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envp....
 
6.
DENG, X., CHEN, Z., WANG, X. et al. Exhaust noise, performance and emission characteristics of spark ignition engine fuelled with pure gasoline and hydrous ethanol gasoline blends. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 2018, 12, 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csit....
 
7.
DIEMEL, O., HONZA, R., DING, C.-P. et al. In situ sensor for cycle-resolved measurement of temperature and mole fractions in IC engine exhaust gases. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 2019, 37(2), 1453-1460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proc....
 
8.
DIMARATOS, A., TOUMASATOS, Z., TRIANTAFYLLOPOULOS, G. et al. Real-world gaseous and particle emissions of a bi-fuel gasoline/CNG Euro 6 passenger car. Transportation Research Part D. 2020, 82, 102307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.....
 
9.
GALLUS, J., KIRCHNER, U., VOGT, R. et al. Impact of driving style and road grade on gaseous exhaust emissions of passenger vehicles measured by a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS). Transportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017, 52(A), 215-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.....
 
10.
HAO, X., ZHANG, X., CAO, X. et al. Characterization and carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust emission from gasoline passenger cars using on-road measurements in Beijing, China. Science of the Total Environment. 2018, 645, 347-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scit....
 
11.
HAO, X., ZHANG, Y., HE, Y. et al. Parallel attention-based LSTM for building a prediction model of vehicle emissions using PEMS and OBD. Measurement. 2021, 185, 110074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meas....
 
12.
JANICKA, A. Ocena toksyczności mikroatmosfery środowiska wnętrza pojazdu samochodowego. Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Wrocław 2013.
 
13.
JASIŃSKI, R., MARKOWSKI, J., PIELECHA, J. Probe positioning for the exhaust emissions measurements. Procedia Engineering. 2017, 192, 381-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proe....
 
14.
JEŻOWIECKA-KABSCH, K., SZEWCZYK, H. Mechanika płynów, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Wrocław 2001.
 
15.
KAMIŃSKA, M., ANDRZEJEWSKI, M., DASZKIEWICZ, P. Research of ecological indicators of two-way vehicle in stationary conditions. Combustion Engines. 2022, 188(1), 30-34. https://doi.org/10.19206/CE-14....
 
16.
KERBACHI, R., CHIKHI, S., BOUGHEDAOUI, M. Development of real exhaust emission from passenger cars in Algeria by using on-board measurement. Energy Procedia. 2017, 136, 388-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyp....
 
17.
KĘSKA, A., JANICKA, A. Application of bat-cell bio-ambient tests in exhaust gas emissions examinations for Euro 4 and Euro 6 combustion engines. Journal of Machine Engineering. 2017, 17(4), 83-90. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.300....
 
18.
KĘSKA, A., JANICKA, A. Determination of volatile organic compounds for combustion engines compliant with Euro 4 and Euro 6. Proceedings of ECOpole, 2017, 11(2), 387-394. https://doi.org/10.2429/proc.2....
 
19.
KĘSKA, A. Metoda oceny toksyczności spalin silnikowych w aspekcie analizy rozwoju standardów emisyjnych. Raporty Wydziału Mechanicznego Politechniki Wrocławskiej. 2020, 26(155|).
 
20.
KURANC, A. Exhaust emission test performance with the use of the signal from air flow meter. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability. 2015, 17(1), 129-134.
 
21.
LEBRECHT, G., CZERCZAK, S., SZYMCZAK, W. Benzen. Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych poziomów narażenia zawodowego. Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy. 2003, 1(35).
 
22.
MANAHAN, S.E. Toksykologia środowiska. Aspekty chemiczne i biochemiczne. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2006.
 
23.
MENDYKA, B., RADEK, P., WARGACKA, A. et al. Cytotoksyczność i mutagenność preparatów zawierających domieszkę estru metylowego oleju rzepakowego. Medycyna Środowiskowa. 2005, 8(2).
 
24.
MERKISZ, J., ANDRZEJEWSKI, M., PIELECHA, J. Comparison of carbon dioxide emissions in real traffic conditions of the vehicle with the values obtained in the certification test on the background of European standards. Combustion Engines. 2011-SC-057, 2011.
 
25.
POULAKIS, E., PHILIPPOPOULOS, C. Photocatalytic treatment of automotive exhaust emissions. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2017, 309, 178-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.....
 
26.
SHEN, X., SHI, J., CAO, X. et al. Real-world exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles fueled by waste cooking oil biodiesel blends. Atmospheric Environment. 2018, 191, 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmo....
 
27.
SZWAJA, S., ANSARI, E., RAO, S. et al. Influence of exhaust residuals on combustion phases, exhaust toxic emission and fuel consumption from a natural gas fueled spark-ignition engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 2018, 165, 440-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enco....
 
28.
SZYMLET, N., KAMIŃSKA, M., LIJEWSKI, P. et al. Use of toxicity indicators related to CO2 emissions in the ecological assessment of an two-wheel vehicle. Combustion Engines. 2021, 187(4), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.19206/CE-14....
 
29.
WANG, Z., LIU, X., MU, Y. et al. The exhaust emission online detection on the diesel engine. Optik. 2018, 164, 126-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijle....
 
30.
WANG, J., GUI, H., YANG, Z. et al. Real-world gaseous emission characteristics of natural gas heavy-duty sanitation trucks. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2022, 115, 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.....
 
31.
YUSOFF, M.N.A.M., ZULKIFLI, N.W.M., MASJUKI, H.H. et al. Comparative assessment of ethanol and isobutanol addition in gasoline on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018, 190, 483-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcle....
 
32.
ZARDINI, A.A., SUAREZ-BERTOA, R., FORNI, F. et al. Reducing the exhaust emissions of unregulated pollutants from small gasoline engines with alkylate fuel and low-ash lube oil. Environmental Research. 2019, 170, 203-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envr....
 
33.
ZIÓŁKOWSKI, A., FUĆ, P., LIJEWSKI, P. et al. Analysis of exhaust emission measurements in rural conditions from heavy-duty vehicle. Combustion Engines. 2020, 182(3), 54-58. https://doi.org/10.19206/CE-20....
 
eISSN:2658-1442
ISSN:2300-9896