The paper presents the experimental test results reflecting the comparative changes in the performance efficiency and emissions of the exhaust of a naturally aspirated, four-stroke, single-cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine due to its transition from neat rapeseed oil biodiesel to fuel blends prepared by mixing in various proportion (by volume) rapeseed methyl ester (B) and butanol (Bu). The lubricity properties of biodiesel-n-butanol fuel blends were studied using HFRR method. In contrast to previous works, the undertaken investigation is performed with a totally renewable, binary liquid biofuel blends. The purpose of the research is to reduce simultaneously the production of NOx emissions and the exhaust smoke with respect to neat biodiesel due to potentially improved homogeneity of combustible mixture and particulate matter emissions benefits suggested by the higher oxygen content (21.62wt%) and the relatively lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio (4.8) of the normal n-butanol. The tests revealed that the brake specific fuel consumption for the binary biodiesel-n-butanol fuel blends is always higher than that neat biodiesel produces under the same loading conditions. Maximum nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were obtained with the engine running on neat biodiesel (2290 ppm). At full (100%) load conditions, the lowest NOx emission was obtained with the engine running on a biofuel BBu20 blend. The lowest level of carbon monoxide emissions (CO) was observed, when engine running with the most butanol-oxygenated biofuel blend BBu20.The highest smoke opacity of the exhaust was obtained when the engine was fuelled with neat biodiesel and at full load.
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Available at:
GIAKOUMIS, E., RAKOPOULOS, C.D., DIMARATOS, A.M. et al. Exhaust emissions with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013, 17(1), 170-190.
RAKOPOULOS, D.C., RAKOPOULOS, C.D., GIAKOUMIS, E.G. et al. Comparative evaluation of ethanol, n-butanol, and diethyl ether effects as biofuel supplements on combustion characteristics, cyclic variations, and emissions balance in light-duty diesel engine. Journal of Energy Engineering. 2017, 143(2), 04016044-1-04016044-8.
LABECKAS, G., SLAVINSKAS, S., RUDNICKI, J. et al. The effect of oxygenated diesel-n-butanol fuel blends on combustion, performance, and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged CRDI diesel engine. Polish Maritime Research. 2018, 25, 1(97), 108-120.
SUKJIT, E., HERREROS, J.M., DEARN, K.D. et al. Effect of hydrogen on butanol-biodiesel blends in compression ignition engines. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2013, 38(3), 1624-1635.
WEI, L., CHEUNG, C.S., NING, Z. Effects of biodiesel-ethanol and biodiesel-butanol blends on the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine. Energy. 2018, 155, 957-970.
ZÖLDY, M. Fuel properties of butanol-hydrogenated vegetable oil blends as a diesel extender option for internal combustion engines. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering. 2020, 64(2), 205-212.
LABECKAS, G., SLAVINSKAS, S., KANAPKIENĖ, I. Study of the effects of biofuel-oxygen of various origins on a CRDI diesel engine combustion and emissions. Energies. 2019, 12(7), 1241.
RAKOPOULOS, D.C., RAKOPOULOS, C.D., GIAKOUMIS, E.G. Impact of properties of vegetable oil, bio-diesel, ethanol and n-butanol on the combustion and emissions of turbocharged HDDI diesel engine operating under steady and transient conditions. Fuel. 2015, 156, 1-19,
GRABOSKI M.S., MCCORMICK R.L. Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 1998, 24(2), 125-164.
SHAHIR, S.A., MASJUKI, H.H., KALAM, M.A. Performance and emission assessment of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol/bioethanol blend as a fuel in diesel engines: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015, 48, 62-78.
PAPAGIANNAKIS, R.G., RAKOPOULOS, D.C., RAKOPOULOS, C.D. Evaluation of the air-oxygen enrichment effects on combustion and emissions of natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines at various loads and pilot fuel quantities. Energies. 2018, 11(11), 3028.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top